Ecological niche acting
To test the possibility that located area of the jacana hybrid zone is actually influenced by ecological adaptation inside the western Panama, er kvinnene pГҐ jdate ekte eller modeller we generated environmental specific niche activities both for varieties within the Maxent v3.step 3 , playing with statistical ways created in , while the adopted regarding ENMTools v1.3 computer software . To achieve this we generated some density products for for every variety according to our specimen information and you may supplemented that have installed data out-of one or two public databases (Avian Education Community ( and you can Ornis (art gallery sample details simply: Just like the density studies for both variety is quite biased into the areas away from large ecotourism interest, this new records had been pruned for having a good uniform delivery off tested occurrence situations across the per species variety . 5 min quality about WorldClim database v.14 trimmed to the present continental shipment of brand new Globe jacanas (five levels had been found to be highly coordinated with other layers [Spearman’s r >0.90] s and you can was in fact omitted in the analysis, c.f.. I produced variety market activities for three datasets: a) the complete listing of J. spinosa (239 circumstances), b) this new continental listing of J. jacana (246 situations), and c) the variety of the newest all black-plumaged J.j. hypomelaena subspecies off J. jacana west of the brand new Andes (which happen to be good subset out of b), fifty points). For every single study place, a species niche model try produced due to the fact mediocre out of a hundred runs which have twenty-five% of your own observance items used for model education plus the other 75% getting model creativity. The fresh new resulting output try a beneficial raster file of estimated specific niche suitability per kinds from inside the ASCII style.
I measured the levels that the newest projected niche of each and every jacana taxon overlapped playing with around three analytics: Schoener’s D, a standardized measure of Hellinger point I, plus the relative rank RR, once the used in ENMTools v1.3 . ENMTools calculated the importance of these statistics having fun with a low-parametric method from the creating null-worthy of withdrawals from D, I, and you will RR, that have been computed off 100 sets out of pseudoreplicated datasets one to mix density facts out of both taxa under testing. Empirically seen opinions are then than the these withdrawals to choose importance. I put this process on comparison from around three pairs regarding modeled niches: J. spinosa against. all the J. jacana, J. spinosa versus. just J. j. hypomelaena, and you will J. j. hypomelaena against. the remaining J. jacana (e.g. the chestnut and black colored plumaged subspecies eastern and you can southern area of your Andes). Eventually to try to select and that environmental things was on the differences in this new modeled markets from spinosa and you may jacana we compared the fresh suggest of all 15 Bioclim variables to your band of for each and every types thickness issues.
In total i scored the fresh phenotypes of 102 adult jacana specimens regarding Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia (Additional file step one: Table S1). Phenotypic results one of many observers was indeed extremely coordinated (Spearman’s r: 0.91 – 0.97), and you may few specimens got ratings nearby the assortment restriction of our own classification design. Phenotypes ratings varied off 0.00 to just one.00, toward lower ratings into the Costa Rica and you will adjacent west Panama, and high ratings inside main Panama east in order to Colombia (Dining table step 1, Extra document step one: Table S1). Clines fit to all the about three phenotypic attributes got similar locations (average: 402 kilometer east out-of Bebedero, range: 392 – 408 kilometer). Estimated cline widths to the around three phenotypic traits ranged off thirty two to 142 kilometres (average: 75 kilometres; Desk dos). I used the largest really worth so you can explain this new jacana hybrid area because the occurring anywhere between 260 and 544 km east regarding Bebedero. Contained in this crossbreed area, 16% out-of specimens had been categorized just like the phenotypic “hybrids” and you may a total of 42% demonstrated specific phenotypic signs of introgression relative to parental forms (Table 3). Away from crossbreed region, all the specimens was indeed categorized just like the strictly adult. One particular specimens classified as “hybrids”, phenotype scores had been somewhat biased with the J. spinosa (suggest rating: 0.thirty six +/? 0.09, one-take to t-decide to try, t =cuatro.7, P =0.002). East of your hybrid region heart exponential decay tails of our own installing clines quickly achieved an enthusiastic asymptote of 1.0. Yet not to the west of brand new crossbreed heart, two of the around three fitting clines had shallower great rust tails one to did not started to 0.0 at the Bebedero, indicating broader, asymmetrical introgression away from jacana phenotypic characteristics on the directory of spinosa (Shape 3).